Georgia - საქართველო, Sakartvelo
Borders - Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia
Territory - 69 700 sq.kms.
Population - 4.5 million
Capital - Tbilisi (1 400 000)
Largest cities - Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Rustavi
Political system - Parliamentary Republic
Official language - Georgian
Alphabet - Georgian (original) Alphabet
Religion - Georgian Orthodox Church
Currency - Lari (GEL)
Time zone - UTS +4
Phone code: +995
Climate - mainly subtropical with high humidity in western Georgia. Mediterranean in the eastern part of the country.
Short survey of history
1.8-1.6 million years ago Homo erectus, one of the subtypes of ancestors of modern humans, inhabited the territory of modern Georgia.
The first states, Diaokh and Colchis were formed on the territory of modern Georgia in 12-7th centuries BC. The Kingdom of Iberia was founded in 4th century BC in the Eastern part of the country.
Small states on Georgian territory found it hard to resist the invaders of different periods of history. The conquerors attacked from different directions and, therefore, eastern and western kingdoms and principalities on Georgian territory often were divided and reunited under the foreign influence. Arab rule in 8th -11th centuries was quite severe, as well as Mongolian invasions in 13th -15th centuries. Later, in 16th -18th centuries, Persians and Turks struggled for their influence in Caucasus.
There was a short period of Golden Age of united Georgian State in 11th and 12th centuries, when it was reigned by David Agmashenebeli (Builder) and Queen Tamar.
In 1783, Georgievsky Treaty was signed with Russia and from the beginning of 19th century, small Georgian states were incorporated by Russian Empire one after another.
Georgian Democratic Republic, established in 1918, had a short life. The Red Army marched in the country in 1921 and eventually Georgia became a part of Soviet Union. In 1991 Georgia became independent again after the collapse of Soviet Union.